Connecting to purpose and meaning was strongly linked by participants to maintaining recovery and, in many cases, necessary to initiating recovery. Participants gave examples of times they felt valued, which they said provided hope and helped to heal internalized stigma they had absorbed from feeling dehumanized by providers, law enforcement, community members, and family members. They reported the great importance to their recovery of having hope, feeling that others tolerated them, not feeling that they were given up on, and how important it was to them that people in their lives were willing to meet them where they were in the process. The participants also said a sense of belonging was crucial to maintaining recovery. Harm reduction services helped people by keeping them safe, offering a safe and often non-judgmental space, facilitating referrals, and providing other resources. Peer support was seen as an incredible resource for PWUD and those in recovery and was perceived as more effective than counselors or social workers without lived experience.
Because it was a military measure, however, the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. It also expressly exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Union control. Most important, the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory.
The formative and testing phases of the psychometric evaluation was conducted in two countries, Somalia and South Sudan. In Southern Central Somalia, we worked in four districts (Bondhere, Karaan, Wadajir, Yaqshid) in Mogadishu and in South Sudan, we worked in two regions (Yei and Warrap). Somalia has experienced more than two decades of conflict as well as ongoing emergencies including drought, famine, and a large number of internally displaced people (IDPs). Yei is located in southwestern South Sudan and was the re-entry point for South Sudanese who fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Uganda during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Since many people stayed in Yei upon returning, there is conflict between those native to Yei and IDPs from other regions of South Sudan. Warrap is in the northern region of South Sudan and is a gateway between South Sudan and Sudan. Militia activity, cattle-raiding, and conflict over oil, along with the influx of people returning to South Sudan, has caused significant challenges for access to and use of limited resources. The districts and regions in each country were selected based on multiple factors. We focused efforts on districts and regions where GBV reporting systems existed and could be accessed to generate data on case reports and referrals. When engaging GBV survivors and other community members in research on sensitive issues it is essential to have partnerships with diverse service sectors (e.g., health, protection, legal, advocacy) for participants that disclose GBV and request referrals. The evaluation also required safe access to the sites and security while doing the study for both participants and local researchers, therefore this required establishing relationships and obtaining permission from national, regional, and district governmental authorities and ministries as well as traditional leaders in the communities.
Although the significance of including PWLE in mental healthcare has been established, their involvement in treatment, research, and policy has been minimal when compared to other health conditions . In Canada, this gap is being recognized. The College of Family Physicians of Canada reported that PWLE should be included in primary care and educational settings to competently treat patients in mental healthcare . The Public Health Agency of Canada announced the need for global collective action on mental health from all sectors of society, including PWLE, to address complex mental illness . Mental Health Research Canada vows to improve the lives of individuals living with mental illness by incorporating PWLE and other providers to inform their care. For many research programs and grants in North America, the inclusion patient engagement is now a common requirement .
Lead pigments have also been analyzed for their isotopic composition. In this way ancient Chinese and central Asian pigments have been examined . Fortunato et al.  have determined lead isotope abundance ratios in lead white, a common constituent in seventeenth century oil paintings. Works of art by Rubens, van Dyck and other Flemish masters gave very similar lead isotope distributions, which indicates a distinct origin of raw materials. Also Fleming  has described how lead pigments in oil paintings by old masters may be used to settle doubts on genuineness. With respect to Swedish material, studies of mediaeval lead pigments from mural paintings, church portals and baptismal stone fonts have been performed with the aim to determine their origin [79,80,81]. Most lead pigments were found to originate from the Harz and Erzgebirge regions in Germany, but also lead pigments from Russia and Sweden (the Bergslagen ore district) were identified.
Third, while many countries require greater technical capacity in managing and controlling specific diseases, and national or regional disease control programs have considerable value, it is vital that disease control activities are integrated with other health services at the level of service delivery. In particular, there are substantial synergies in delivery of care to those with AIDS and non-communicable diseases, both of which require well-managed pharmaceutical supply chains, trained multi-professional teams, and management systems to support long-term relationships between patients and health care providers at different levels of the system. The exceptions would be where the nature of the intervention is such that it is free-standing - as with national media campaigns, for example, or interventions in other sectors such as schools.
All articles about Rett syndrome discussed pulmonary complications (Table 4). Almost 30% of patients were reported as having respiratory complications, including pneumothorax, respiratory failure, and pneumonia. Despite the complications, and in contradistinction to many reports on Down syndrome patients, the authors generally felt that the surgeries were successful in bettering the overall lives of these patients [14,16,17].
The reporting of health inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples has mirrored the neoliberal ideology of personal autonomy for some time, furthering deficit discourses (17) that attempt to justify the significant health disparities experienced by many Indigenous communities. This insufficient understanding of Indigenous health arguably causes more harm to Indigenous peoples and limits opportunities and resources for substantial improvements in health outcomes (15, 18, 19). Policies of colonisation and assimilation restricted personal control over the lives of many Indigenous people; the shift to a neoliberal discourse of personal autonomy, which blames individuals for their circumstances and behaviours, largely ignores the vast impact of previous political circumstances on Indigenous wellbeing (14, 20). Beyond considerations of assimilation and colonisation, attention to modern colonial values, political economies, and structural factors that limit individual choice for Indigenous peoples is needed. The forced operation of Indigenous peoples within socio-political structures of dominant culture replicates power frameworks established during colonisation (21). Therefore, scholars, politicians and policy makers must move beyond the acknowledgment of historic oppression and develop a more nuanced consideration of how modern-day structural forces maintain and strengthen power imbalances and contribute to Indigenous health inequities. The investigation of Indigenous health which considers historical socio-political circumstances permits a shift away from personal responsibility for health and creates space to explore alternative pathways and interventions to achieving Indigenous health equity. This aligns with a strength-based approach rather than continuing a deficit discourse, which disempowers Indigenous communities (17).
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has transitioned to a third phase and many variants have been originated. There has been millions of lives loss as well as billions in economic loss. The morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 varies by country. There were different preventive approaches and public restrictions policies have been applied to control the COVID-19 impacts and usually measured by Stringency Index. This study aimed to explore the COVID-19 trend, public restriction policies and vaccination status with economic ranking of countries.
COVID-19 cases have been increasing in Southeast Asian countries , and the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the lives of everyone, including health care workers, in many ways, including mental health [8, 38,39,40,41]. As of November 21, 2021, around 4.25, 2.82, 2.58, 2.06, 1.09, and 0.52 million confirmed cases have already been in Indonesia, Philippine, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, respectively. The government of all the countries has been trying to mitigate the infection with several measures, including mass vaccination. Understanding vaccination-related behavior is critical in expanding the vaccine coverage to flatten the infection curve. Unfortunately, studies related to the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are limited in the context of these nations. As of November 21, 2021, the proportion of the general population fully vaccinated was 32.2% in Indonesia, 79.9% in Malaysia, 17.9% in Myanmar, 38.3% in Philippines, 54.73% in Thailand, and 39.6% in Vietnam . Though started with AstraZeneca in the first phase, Pfizer, Sinovac, and Covovax vaccines are available in east Asian countries. The hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine may pose critical challenges in the fight against the pandemic and the global shortage of vaccines. To address this gap, we conducted a multi-country study to assess the perception of the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, acceptance, and hesitancy in the context of Southeast Asian countries. We also explored factors associated with the hesitation in the vaccine uptake. 2b1af7f3a8