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In animal models, studies commonly report that increases in bicarbonate concentration and/or intracellular accumulation of H+ do not impact maximum force production, even though these effects may be temperature-dependent [192, 193]. This lack of an effect on force production might also explain why sodium bicarbonate supplementation in humans generally does not enhance maximum strength. However, data using animal models also show that a decline in pH negatively affects muscle conduction velocity, a metric that is positively related to the rate of force development (RFD) [194, 195]. Given that one of the mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate is buffering of H+, the ingestion of this supplement may positively impact RFD. A series of studies explored the effects of sodium bicarbonate on RFD following either 30 s of cycling, maximum strength testing, or five sets of knee extensions [104, 106,107,108]. RFD was higher following sodium bicarbonate ingestion in three of these studies. These findings might be of practical importance as RFD is associated with several aspects of athletic performance, such as sprinting and jumping [196, 197]. This might partially explain some of the positive results shown for the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint activities. While these initial findings are promising, future work is still needed, as only a few studies have focused on this outcome.
A sound nutritional plan is essential for achieving and maintaining optimal athletic performance. In addition to daily meal planning, a sports nutritionist pays special attention to the needs of athletes before, during and following training sessions and competitions. A wide variety of foods and nutritional products are available for the athlete to meet these needs. Sports nutrition professionals spend a lot of time reading and interpreting the relevant literature, and in many cases, researching the best products and ways to deliver the needed nutrients. In the research world, we often examine individual ingredients that have been removed from foods in an effort to examine the potential beneficial effects in isolation. In the real world, we most often eat foods that contain several important ingredients. So, it is ultimately also necessary to conduct research studies with real foods to determine how the food is received as a whole, and whether the important ingredients reach the target tissues in sufficient amounts, whether they interact with each other, and of course, whether beneficial effects are realized. This supplement examines the potential complications and benefits of eating foods in the context of achieving and maintaining optimal performance.
The Gatorade Sports Science Institute (GSSI) has been bringing sports nutrition and sports science researchers together for the past 30 years to address many issues that relate to the health, wellbeing and performance of athletes. Since 2012 this gathering has been known as the GSSI Expert Panel, which continued in 2017 with a meeting in October to discuss several nutritional issues that influence athlete performance. Following the meeting, the authors summarized the recent work in their topic area, resulting in the manuscripts in this Sports Medicine supplement (the sixth in a series supported by GSSI).
The next paper  of the supplement digs deeper into the roles that fruit-derived polyphenols may play in enhancing athletic performance and recovering from exercise-induced muscle damage. Polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may enhance exercise performance by regulating the excess reactive oxygen species generation that have been implicated in fatigue development. Recovery from intensive exercise may also be improved by polyphenols by limiting inflammation and oxidative damage in muscle. While some research does exist to support these claims, more research is needed both from an efficacy and mechanistic perspective.
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Collegiate and Professional Sports Dietitians Association collaborates with our partners to develop sports nutrition educational tools and resources. CPSDA members, coaches, athletic trainers, strength coaches and other allied healthcare members working with athletes can use these infographics to educate athletes at all skill-levels on the benefits of fueling for performance. Each page can be downloaded and printed. Check back for new resources on a continual basis.
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