Stockholm, Sweden, September 26, 2007 - Propellerhead Software today announced public availability for Reason version 4. Reason version 4 can be purchased from retailers worldwide and Propellerheads online store, the PropShop. The new version boasts Thor, a highly sophisticated, superior sounding synthesizer, the ReGroove mixer, a new way to adjust the rhythmic feel of tracks, RPG-8, a versatile arpeggiator, a completely rebuilt sequencer coupled with many other workflow enhancements that give musicians the control and power to make great sounding music faster and easier than ever.
Thor, Polysonic Synthesizer, takes sound creation to a new level delivering a veritable "museum" of synthesis techniques wrapped into one instrument. With six open "slots," Thor brings together six different oscillators with four different filter modules plus wave shaping, enveloping and effects. Thor offers a plethora of modulation routings that enable users to exchange audio and control signals just like original analog synths. The result is a fantastic, full-sounding instrument that is extremely light on CPU usage.
Reason version 4 features a number of other improvements and enhancements. Reason is now fully localized into English, French, German and Japanese, including all menus, interface items, help files and documentation. The transport control and hardware interface have been redesigned for easier use. A floating tools window lets users access devices, editing commands and groove controls without having to invoke menus or dialog boxes. The included Factory Sound Bank has grown considerably including over 200 "signature" Thor patches from well-known artists and sound designers. The Combinator and NN-XT devices have received enhancements especially useful for sound designers and live musicians.
AI and machine learning allow manufacturing companies to take full advantage of the volume of information generated not just on the factory floor, but across their business units, and even from partners and third-party sources. AI and machine learning can create insights providing visibility, predictability and automation of operations and business processes. For instance: Industrial machines are prone to breaking down during the production process. Using data collected from these assets can help businesses perform predictive maintenance based on machine learning algorithms, resulting in more uptime and higher efficiency.
But when they had heard the inducements and saw the dreadful devices, not only were they not afraid, but they also opposed the tyrant with their own philosophy, and by their right reasoning nullified his tyranny.
The User-Agent request header is a characteristic string that lets servers and network peers identify the application, operating system, vendor, and/or version of the requesting user agent.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP). It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet and other packet-switched networks. IPv4 was the first version deployed for production on SATNET in 1982 and on the ARPANET in January 1983. It is still used to route most Internet traffic today, even with the ongoing deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), its successor.
Internet Protocol version 4(fasz) is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition of January 1980 (RFC 760). In March 1982, the US Department of Defense decided on the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) as the standard for all military computer networking.
The long-term solution to address exhaustion was the 1998 specification of a new version of the Internet Protocol, IPv6. It provides a vastly increased address space, but also allows improved route aggregation across the Internet, and offers large subnetwork allocations of a minimum of 264 host addresses to end users. However, IPv4 is not directly interoperable with IPv6, so that IPv4-only hosts cannot directly communicate with IPv6-only hosts. With the phase-out of the 6bone experimental network starting in 2004, permanent formal deployment of IPv6 commenced in 2006. Completion of IPv6 deployment is expected to take considerable time, so that intermediate transition technologies are necessary to permit hosts to participate in the Internet using both versions of the protocol.
The IPv4 packet header consists of 14 fields, of which 13 are required. The 14th field is optional and aptly named: options. The fields in the header are packed with the most significant byte first (network byte order), and for the diagram and discussion, the most significant bits are considered to come first (MSB 0 bit numbering). The most significant bit is numbered 0, so the version field is actually found in the four most significant bits of the first byte, for example.
The Principle of Sufficient Reason is a powerful and controversialphilosophical principle stipulating that everything must have areason, cause, or ground. This simple demand for thoroughgoingintelligibility yields some of the boldest and most challenging thesesin the history of philosophy. In this entry we begin by explainingthe Principle and then turn to the history of the debates around it.We conclude with an examination of the emerging contemporarydiscussion of the Principle.
The PSR is, in fact, a family of principles which aregenerated by various restrictions of (2), and by ascriptions ofdifferent degrees of modal strength to (2). To begin with, variants ofthe PSR may differ according to how they restrict the kinds ofthings that require a reason (the explananda). Thus, one mightrestrict the PSR to only actual entities, or include possibilia aswell. Alternatively, one might formulate the PSR as requiring asufficient reason for every (true) proposition or as pertaining toentities and their properties. A variant of the PSR restricted toentities might require an explanation for the existence andnon-existence of entities, or it might be further restricted byrequiring a reason only for the existence (or only for thenon-existence) of entities. A version of the PSR that is restricted topropositions might range over both contingent and necessarypropositions, or it might be further restricted to only one of thesesub-domains.
Variants of the PSR may be generated not only by placing restrictionson the relata at stake (both the explananda and the explanantia), butalso on the notion of the relation at stake. Frequently, the relationof providing a reason is conceived as irreflexive, antisymmetric andtransitive, though each of these characteristics may be, and indeedhave been, challenged. The relation of providing a reason can beconceived as an ontological relation (as in contemporary discussionsof ground), or as a purely epistemological relation.
A modally strong version of the PSR will take the Principle asnecessary and obtaining in all possible worlds, while a weak modalversion will present the Principle as merely contingently true.Another distinction can be drawn between a factive, asopposed to merely regulative, version of the Principle. Aregulative version of the PSR would consider it as a condition forintelligibility (on a par with the Law of Non-Contradiction) andthus as guiding our studying of nature. The factive version simplystates that the Principle is true in actuality (or even in allpossible worlds). The regulative and the factive versions differ interms of allowing for the falsification of the principle. The factiveversion could be easily refuted by a single counter-example. Aproponent of the regulative variant of the PSR would argue that anempirical falsification of the PSR makes as little sense as anempirical falsification of the Law of Non-Contradiction. Encounteringa fact which seems to have no explanation, the proponent ofthe regulative variant would respond by insisting that we must keepsearching for an explanation.
There is much to be said about this image of reason, which ascribes toreason the same exhaustiveness, dominance, and omnipresence thattraditional theologies ascribe to God. This passage leaves no room foranything that is beyond, or against, reason.
Thus, consider the following three propositions: (i) The triangle hasthree angles, (ii) The substance exists, and (iii) The triangleexists. Proposition (i) is clearly self-explanatory, since the essenceof the triangle (which contains the nature of the number three and thenature of an angle) is the sufficient reason for its having three angles(adding any other information is of no explanatory value). Spinozaconsiders proposition (ii) as self-explanatory as well. Notice thatSpinoza does not define substance (in E1d3) as existing by virtue ofits essence, but rather derives this claim from the definition ofsubstance (in E1p7). In contrast to (i) and (ii), the existence of atriangle does not follow merely from its essence (since it is causedby entities external to the triangle, and therefore has to beexplained through these external causes).
31. Our reasonings are based on two great principles, that ofcontradiction, in virtue of which we judge that which involves acontradiction to be false, and that which is opposed or contradictoryto the false to be true.
32. And that of sufficient reason, by virtue of which we consider thatwe can find no true or existent fact, no true assertion, without therebeing a sufficient reason why it is thus and not otherwise, althoughmost of the time these reasons cannot be known to us. (G VI, 612/L646)
We must therefore distinguish distinct ways of associating theprinciples with various domains. The first way is to specify thedomain to which each principle applies. Leibniz appears tobelieve that, according to this approach, there is a single universaldomain and it is associated equally with each principle. There are nocontradictory contingent facts or truths and so the Principle ofNoncontradiction applies to all contingent truths as well asall necessary truths. Likewise, it is usually assumed that, forLeibniz, every necessary truth has a sufficient reason (see Broad1975: 12 and 34 and Rodriguez-Pererya forthcoming). Forexample, mathematical truths, might have sufficient reasons in theform of proofs that rest on statements of identity. Thus the PSRapplies to all necessary truths as well as all contingenttruths. 2b1af7f3a8